Ever wonder where exactly in the world of Azeroth you are when you're playing Hearthstone? World of Warcraft is vast and there are a ton of different locations the Blizzard team has utilized when coming up with adventures and expansions. Miinmeaux, a fan of the franchise has created a map showing roughly where each set takes place.
Notably, a large percentage of the locations are located in the southern half of Kalimdor.
1 - Ahn'qiraj, prison of C'Thun and home of his Silithids (WotOG) and home of the Anubisath (LoE)
2 - Uldum, home of the Tol'vir (JtU) and full of treasure (LoE)
3 - Un'goro Crater, home of many dinosaurs and playground of the titans (JtU)
4 - Gadgetzan, a commerce hub for goblins and the people they deal with (MSoG)
5- Karazhan, former home of Medivh, the Guardian (Kara)
6 - Blackrock Mountain, base of operations for Nefarian and all of the dragons and orcs who follow him (BrM)
7 - Argent Tournament Grounds (TGT) (Bonus: while not a TGT card, Lord Jaraxxus comes from here)
8 - Ulduar, titan facility and prison of Yogg-Saron, Hope's End (WotOG) (Bonus: not a WotOG card, but the titan keeper Mimiron resides here)
9 - Naxxramas, foul necropolis of the Scourge (Naxx)
10 - The Dread Wastes, home of the mantids, fervent worshipers of Y'Shaarj, Rage Unbound (WotOG) 1
1 - Prison of the heart of Y'shaarj, the one fallen Old God (WotOG)